FOUNDATIONS OF SOFTWARE TESTING ISTQB CERTIFICATION Dorothy Graham
Monday, November 23, 2020
Saturday, November 21, 2020
Ebook Software Quality Engineering Testing Quality Assurance and Quantifiable Improvement by Jeff Tian
Software Quality Engineering Testing Quality Assurance and Quantifiable Improvement by Jeff Tian
PART I OVERVIEW AND BASICS
Meeting People’s Quality Expectations, Dependency and Suggested Usage, Book Organization and Chapter Overview, Reader Preparation and Background Knowledge.
2. What Is Software Quality?
Quality: Perspectives and Expectations, Quality Frameworks and ISO-9126, Correctness and Defects: Definitions, Properties, and Measurements, A Historical Perspective of Quality, So, What Is Software Quality.
3. Quality Assurance
Defect Prevention, Classification: QA as Dealing with Defects, Education and training, Formal method, Other defect prevention techniques, Software fault tolerance, Defect Reduction, Inspection: Direct fault detection and removal, Testing: Failure observation and fault removal, Other techniques and risk identification, Defect Containment, Safety assurance and failure containment.
4. Quality Assurance in Context
Verification and Validation Perspectives, Reconciling the Two Views, Concluding Remarks, Handling Discovered Defect During QA Activities, QA Activities in Software Processes.
5. Quality Engineering
Quality Assessment and Improvement, Concluding Remarks, Quality Engineering: Activities and Process, Quality Planning: Goal Setting and Strategy Formation, Quality Engineering in Software Processes.
PART II SOFTWARETESTING
6. Testing: Concepts, Issues, and Techniques
Questions About Testing, Concluding Remarks, Purposes, Activities, Processes, and Context, Functional vs. Structural Testing: What to Test?, Coverage-Based vs. Usage-Based Testing: When to Stop Testing?.
7. Test Activities, Management, and Automation
Test Planning and Preparation, Test planning: Goals, strategies, and techniques, Testing models and test cases, Test suite preparation and management, Preparation of test procedure, Test Execution, Result Checking and Measurement, Analysis and Follow-up, Activities, People, and Management, Test Automation.
8. Coverage and Usage Testing Based on Checklists and Partitions
Checklist-Based Testing and Its Limitations, Testing for Partition Coverage, Some motivational examples, Partition: Concepts and definitions, Usage-Based Statistical Testing with Musa’s Operational Profiles, Musa OP: Basic ideas, Constructing Operational Profiles, Generic methods and participants, OP development procedure: Musa-1, OP development procedure: Musa-2, Case Study: OP for the Cartridge Support Software, Background and participants, OP development in five steps, Metrics collection, result validation, and lessons learned, Concluding Remarks, Problems Testing decisions and predicates for partition coverage, The cases for usage-based statistical testing, Using OPs for statistical testing and other purposes.
9.Input Domain Partitioning and Boundary Testing
Input Domain Partitioning and Testing, Basic concepts, definitions, and terminology, Input domain testing for partition and boundary problems, Simple Domain Analysis and the Extreme Point Combination Strategy, Testing Strategies Based on Boundary Analysis, Other Boundary Test Strategies and Applications, Strong and approximate strategies, Other types of boundaries and extensions, Queuing testing as boundary testing.
10. Coverage and Usage Testing Based on Finite-State Machines and Markov Chains
Finite-State Machines and Testing, Overcoming limitations of simple processing models, FSMs: Basic concepts and examples, Representations of FSMs, FSM Testing: State and Transition Coverage, Some typical problems with systems modeled by FSMs, Model construction and validation, Testing for correct states and transitions, Applications and limitations, Case Study: FSM-Based Testing of Web-Based Applications, Characteristics of web-based applications, What to test: Characteristics of web problems, FSMs for web testing, Markov chains and operational profiles, From individual Markov chains to unified Markov models, UMM construction, Markov Chains and Unified Markov Models for Testing, Using UMMs for Usage-Based Statistical Testing, Testing based on usage frequencies in UMMs, Testing based on other criteria and UMM hierarchies, Implementation, application, and other issues Case Study Continued: Testing Based on Web Usages, Usage-based web testing: Motivations and basic approach, Constructing UMMs for statistical web testing, Statistical web testing: Details and examples.
11. Control Flow, Data Dependency, and Interaction Testing
Basic Control Flow Testing, General concepts, Model construction, Path selection, Path sensitization and other activities, loop Testing, CFT Usage, and Other Issues,Different types of loops and corresponding CFGs, Loop testing: Difficulties and a heuristic strategy, CFT Usage and Other Issues, Data Dependency and Data Flow Testing, Basic concepts: Operations on data and data dependencies Basics of DFT and DDG, DDG elements and characteristics, Information sources and generic procedure for DDG construction, Building DDG indirectly, Dealing with loops, DFT Coverage and Applications, Achieving slice and other coverage, DFT: Applications and other issues, DFT application in synchronization testing.
12. Testing Techniques: Adaptation, Specialization, and Integration
Testing Sub-Phases and Applicable Testing Techniques, Specialized Test Tasks and Techniques, Test Integration, Case Study: Hierarchical Web Testing, Concluding Remarks
PART 111 QUALITY ASSURANCE BEYOND TESTING
13. Defect Prevention and Process improvement
Basic Concepts and Generic Approaches, Root Cause Analysis for Defect Prevention, Education and Training for Defect Prevention, Other Techniques for Defect Prevention, Analysis and modeling for defect prevention, Technologies, standards, and methodologies for defect prevention, Software tools to block defect injection, Process selection, definition, and conformance, Process maturity, Focusing on Software Processes, Process and quality improvement.
14. Software Inspection
Basic Concepts and Generic Process, Fagan inspection, Other Inspections and Related Activities, Inspections of reduced scope or team size, Inspections of enlarged scope or team size, Informal desk checks, reviews, and walkthroughs, Code reading, Other formal reviews and static analyses, Defect Detection Techniques.
15. Formal Verification
Basic Concepts: Formal Verification and Formal Specification, Formal Verification: Axiomatic Approach, I Formal logic specifications, Axioms, Axiomatic proofs and a comprehensive example, Weakest pre-conditions and backward chaining, Functional approach and symbolic execution, Seeking alternatives: Model checking and other approaches, Applications, Effectiveness, and Integration Issues
16. Fault Tolerance and Failure Containment
Basic Ideas and Concepts, Fault Tolerance with Recovery Blocks, Fault Tolerance with N-Version Programming, NVP: Basic technique and implementation, Applying NVP ideas in other QA activities, Failure Containment: Safety Assurance and Damage Control, Hazard analysis using fault-trees and event-trees, Hazard resolution for accident prevention, Accident analysis and post-accident damage control, Modeling and analyzing heterogeneous systems, Prescriptive specifications foir safetyProblems, Application in Heterogeneous Systems
17. Comparing Quality Assurance Techniques and Activities
General Questions: Cost, Benefit, and Environment, Applicability to Different Environments, Effectiveness Comparison, Defect perspective, Problem types, Defect level and pervasiveness, Result interpretation and constructive information, Cost Comparison, Comparison Summary and Recommendations
PART IV QUANTIFIABLE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
18. Feedback Loop and Activities for Quantifiable Quality Improvement
QA Monitoring and Measurement, Direct vs. indirect quality measurements, Direct quality measurements Result and defect measurements, Indirect quality measurements: Environmental, product internal, Immediate Follow-up Actions and Feedback, Analyses and Follow-up Actions, Analyses for product release decisions, Analyses for other project management decisions, Other feedback and follow-up actions, Feedback loop: Implementation and integration, A refined quality engineering process, Tool support: Strategy, implementation, and integration, Implementation, Integration, and Tool Support.
19. Quality Models and Measurements
Models for Quality Assessment, Generalized Models, Product-Specific Models, Model Comparison and Interconnections, Data Requirements and Measurement, Selecting Measurements and Models.
20. Defect Classification and Analysis
General Types of Defect Analyses, Defect distribution analysis, Defect trend analysis and defect dynamics model, Defect causal analysis, ODC concepts, Defect classification using ODC: A comprehensive example, Adapting ODC to analyze web errors, I One-way analysis: Analyzing a single defect attribute, Two-way and multi-way analysis: Examining cross-interactions, Defect Classification and ODC, Defect Analysis for Classified Data.
21. Risk Identification for Quantifiable Quality Improvement
Basic Ideas and Concepts, Traditional Statistical Analysis Techniques, New Techniques for Risk Identification, Principal component and discriminant analyses, Artificial neural networks and learning algorithms, Data partitions and tree-based modeling, Pattern matching and optimal set reduction, Comparisons and Integration, Risk Identification for Classified Defect Data.
22. Software Reliability Engineering
SRE: Basic Concepts and General Approaches, Large Software Systems and Reliability Analyses, Reliability Snapshots Using IDRMs, Longer-Term Reliability Analyses Using SRGMs, TBRMs for Reliability Analysis and Improvement, Constructing and using TBRMs, TBRM Applications, TBRM’s impacts on reliability improvement, Implementation and Software Tool Support.
Saturday, October 24, 2020
1. Define the Methods of Software Testing in detailed
White Box Testing: Contrary to Black Box Testing this testing method uses internal paths, structures, code of the applications available for test. It needs extensive details of programming language and skills. An experienced programmer or test can conduct this
Gray Box Testing: In this strategy, a tester does not need extensive details of internal details of the program, can be done by novice professionals or called beginners.
There are mainly four testing levels used in software testing these are as follows:
Unit Testing : When it comes to check individual components or units of any applications or software are tested by tester it is called Unit Testing. The motive of this testing is to confirm that all parts and code of each unit or module is working perfectly and producing expected results. Unit testing is conducted by the programmer or developer during the course of development.
Wednesday, October 21, 2020
Definition of Use Case Testing
- Use case testing has nothing to do with the software quality and quality assurance of the application, its the method of how the application will be used and interaction between user and softwares.
- It is a limited testing up to module, it doesn't cover entire application, each module has its own use case testing. Every module has its own importance and separate use case testing method.
- Every Use Case has a user/actor and the application software. Its a theory how user interacts with the application. These cases are used to find the bugs and gap in softwares.
- Use case defines how the software will be used. It is the theory of step by step conducted by the actor or user. Using these steps user interacts with the application and see how the system response. It should response with expected results.
- It is the best method to find the Gap between steps, so that software should run in right flow. It should not have any gap. So it helps us to identify the gap and help developer to make application and user friendly.
- Use case plays an important role in compturing the functional requirements of the application.
- Use case testing is conducted before user acceptance, it is done by the testing professionals.
Every now and then we see Use Case in every where in our day to day life. Here we will try to understand the Use Case testing with some live examples, how we can take advantage from this. How a step by step approach helps us to develop an error free softwares.
- User puts the ATM card in the machine.
- Enter its PIN to authenticate the user identity.
- if PIN is right then allow the user to withdrawal the money from ATM machine. If PIN is wrong then ask the user to try with accurate PIN.
- User enter the right PIN and do some operations like withdraw money, change pin request, check balance and others.
- When transactions are done then sign out.
- User opens the form by clicking on the given link or opening the given URL, Actor or user may sign up or sign in as per the need, both are the important step, here user click on the login button and go to login screens.
- Enters valid credentials like user and passwords and press Login button.
- System authenticate user with given user name and password, if the credentials are ok then it allows the user to sign in or generates warning.
- Now User is logs in the website and orders some products, pay the amount and logs out.
- User visits any webpage and sees a textbox to enter email for newsletter sign up.
- User enters his email id and system validates it for proper syntax.
- If syntax is ok then it allows to sign up if wrong it asks user to enter right email id.
- User enter email id and press enter.
- System checks the entire process and accepts the email id as news letter.
FOUNDATIONS OF SOFTWARE TESTING ISTQB CERTIFICATION Dorothy Graham foundation-software-testing-istqb-certification-dorothy-graham The ISTQB...
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Ebook Software Quality Engineering Testing Quality Assurance and Quantifiable Improvement by Jeff TianSoftware Quality Engineering Testing Quality Assurance and Quantifiable Improvement by Jeff Tian PART I OVERVIEW AND BASICS 1. Overview Meet...